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The History of Lebanon

his course is a presentation of the history of Lebanon that covers one million year of human existence threw visual features and monuments in Lebanon, divided in four main periods: 1-the Prehistoric Ages till Classical Antiquities, 2-the Middle Ages, 3-the Ottoman Empire and Governorate of Mount Lebanon, 4-The French Mandate and the Republic of Lebanon. The large number of illustrations used according to the subject of each course will help the student to have a better visualization and understanding of the subjects in the most practical way. A comparative study of some characteristics of monuments in Lebanon with other cultures in the same chronological periods will help to understand the important place of the country between the oriental and occidental worlds. The term paper, a small research on a specific subject related to representative features or monuments in Lebanon and its presentation in the class can be considered a complementary and practical part of the course, The visits to some representative monuments going back to the four main periods in the history of Lebanon can also be considered a practical part of the course and gives better visualization and understanding of the existing features in their geographical context and natural environment.

Temps présentiel : 15 heures

Charge de travail étudiant : 60 heures

Méthode(s) d'évaluation : Participation, Travaux pratiques

Référence :
Annex 1: GLOSSARY Apse :A semicircular (or nearly semicircular) or semi polygonal space, usually in a church, terminating an axis and intended to house an altar. Arcade:A range of arches supported on piers or columns and attached or detached from the wall. Architecture :The art and science of designing and building structures, communities, or open areas, in keeping with aesthetic and functional criteria. Architectonic :Related or conforming to technical architectural principles. Baptistery:Hall or chapel situated close to, or connected with, a church, in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Basilica :A Roman hall of justice, typically with a high central space lit by a clerestory and lower aisles all around it, and with apses or exedra for the seats of the judges. Byzantine architecture :The architecture of the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire which developed from Early Christian and late Roman antecedents in the 4th cent., flourished principally in Greece, but spread widely and lasted throughout the Middle Ages until the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453). Cathedral:The home church of a bishop, usually the principal church in a diocese. Church:An edifice or place of assemblage specifically set apart for Christian worship. Column :A vertical support consisting of a base, shaft, and capital. Conservation :The overseeing and maintenance of a building to prevent or arrest its decay or destruction, usually by applying a variety of measures. Contemporary style :An imprecise term applied to any of a number of architectural modes popular from about the 1940s through the 1970s and beyond, sometimes included under the term modern architecture. Dome :A curved roof structure spanning an area; often spherical in shape. Elevation :A two-dimensional representation or drawing of an exterior face of a building. Façade:An elevation or face of a building. Fortress /Citadel:A fortification of massive scale, generally of monumental character and sometimes including an urban core; Foundation :Any part of a structure that serves to transmit the load to the earth or rock, usually below ground level; the entire masonry substructure. Fresco:The technique of painting water colors on plaster when it is almost but not quite dry Gothic Architecture :The architectural style of the High Middle Ages in Western Europe, which emerged from Romanesque and Byzantine forms in France during the later 12th cent Grave:A burial site dug into the ground Inscription :Letters or symbols etched into stone. Lintel:A horizontal beam located above a window or door opening Masonry: Brick, block, or stone. Medieval architecture :Architecture of the European Middle Ages, from about the 5th to the 15th centuries. Found, in particular, in the pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, and Gothic styles. Monastery: A building complex of a monastic order. Monolith :An architectural member (as an obelisk, the shaft of a column, etc.) consisting of a single stone. Monument:A stone, pillar, megalith, structure, building, or the like, erected in memory of the dead, an event, or an action. Narthex :An enclosed porch or vestibule at the entrance to some early Christian churches. Nave:The middle aisle of a church. Niche :A cavity in a wall, to receive a statue or other ornament Ornament :In architecture, every detail of shape, texture, and color that is deliberately exploited or added to attract an observer. Ottoman architecture :The later phase of Turkish Muslim architecture, from the 14th century onward, much influenced by Byzantine forms. Plan :A two-dimensional graphic representation of the design, horizontal dimensions of a building, and location, as seen in a horizontal plane viewed from above Porch :A covered, visually open space, projecting from the façade of a building, which serves as a transition between inside and outside. Reconstruction :The process of reproducing by new construction the exact form and detail of a demolished property as it appeared at a certain point in time. Rehabilitation :The process of repairing or altering a property so that an efficient, sustainable and appropriate contemporary use is achieved, while preserving those significant historical, architectural, or cultural features which establish the character of the property Restoration:The process of accurately recovering the form and details of a property as it appeared at a particular period of time, which may involve the removal of later additions or alterations, or the replacement of missing features Romanesque style :An architectural style emerging in Western Europe primarily in the 11th century and lasting until the advent of Gothic architecture in the 12th century; based on Roman and Byzantine elements; Sanctuary :In a church, the immediate area around the principal altar; the chancel. The sacred shrine of a divinity Section :A representation of an object as it would appear if cut by an imaginary plane, showing the internal structure. Temple:A Classical edifice dedicated to the service of an ancient deity, usually connected with a system of worship. Vault:A structure based on the principle of the arch, often constructed of masonry

Ce cours est proposé dans les diplômes suivants
 Certificat en étude des réalités historiques et religieuses du Proche-Orient